MindaComnet, PIA to hold Communicators’ Congress and workshop
By Danilo S. Makiling
BUTUAN CITY, Nov. 9 (PIA) -- The Mindanao Communicators Network (MindaComnet) Inc., in cooperation with the Philippine Information Agency (PIA) Mindanao Cluster will hold the annual communicators’ congress and workshop on November 28-30, 2012.
The MindaComNet is an organization of government public information and relations officers of the national government agencies (NGAs), government-owned and controlled corporation (GOCCs), government financial institutions (GFIs), state universities and colleges (SUCs), and local government units (LGUs) in Mindanao.
The primary objective of the communicators’ congress is to promote public advocacy on Mindanao’s opportunities and best practices, with this year’s theme “Communicating Mindanao’s Opportunities and Best Practices.” Northern and Northeastern Mindanao Information Cluster Head Abner Caga said.
“To make the activity more memorable, a souvenir program will be produced by the organizers to have a glimpse of the event which is annually held in different regions in Mindanao,” Caga said.
“The souvenir Program will then be distributed to key stakeholders not only in island but also in the Luzon and Visayan regions,” Caga added.
With this development, the official urges the Information Officers to attend the congress. A registration fee of Three Thousand Two Hundred Pesos (Php 3,200.00) will be collected from the participants to cover the expenses to be incurred during the congress. (NCLM/PIA-Caraga)
Feature: More Pinoys at greater risk to heart attack
By Eva Abille-Goyena
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered as one of the deadliest illnesses in the Philippines.
It’s so deadly because blood flow to the heart is restricted due to hardened or narrowed arteries.
Narrowing of the arteries may be due to plaque, which is made up of fat, cholesterol and other substances found in the blood.
When the plaque builds up, the condition leads to atherosclerosis.
The narrowed arteries constrict the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart and if left untreated, CAD may lead to angina or, worse, heart attack.
Symptoms of angina include chest pain or discomfort and feeling of tightness or heaviness in the chest.
Pain may also occur in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back, and may even feel like indigestion.
Heart attack occurs when the heart muscles are deprived of oxygen and become damaged, which can lead to serious problems and even death.
The National Nutrition and Health Survey conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST) in cooperation with 14 medical societies and the Department of Health reported that 22.5 percent or two in ten of Filipino adults 20 years old and over showed a higher risk of CAD based on the anginal symptoms of chest pain, heaviness and tightness.
The results further revealed that angina based on symptoms is common among females and among those living in rural areas.
On the other hand, the prevalence of CAD based on history of previous diagnosis by a doctor or nurse was 1.3 percent, indicating that only a small proportion of adults is diagnosed with CAD.
This alarming problem which affects about 11,000 Filipino adults needs to be urgently addressed by the government and planning bodies to prevent and control fatal heart disease among Filipino adults, said Charmaine A. Duante, senior science research specialist of the FNRI-DOST.
Another type of atherosclerotic-related disease which was included in the said survey was the peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and stroke.
The cause of PAD is also atherosclerosis where a person may have a higher risk of heart attack, stroke and ischemic heart disease.
PAD was determined based on symptoms of calf pain with a prevalence of 4.2 percent, while stroke was based on previous history with a prevalence of 1.2 percent.
The proportion of adults aged 20 years old and over who had angina based on symptoms has almost doubled from 12.5 percent in 2003 to 22.5 percent in 2008.
This alarming trend is a wake-up call, given the widely recognized body of evidence on the prevalence of these diseases, Duante added.
For more information on food and nutrition, contact Dr. Mario V. Capanzana, Director, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, General Santos Avenue, Bicutan, Taguig City. E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Telefax: 837-2934 and 827-3164, or call: 8372071 local 2296 or visit our website: http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph. (FNRI-DOST S&T Media Service/PIA-Caraga)
News Feature: FNRI bares health status of Pinoy adults
By Eva Abille- Goyena
Nutrition- and lifestyle-related risk factors due to behavioral and environmental factors, among others, increase the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases as well as premature deaths among Filipino adults. This was revealed in the 7th National Nutrition Survey conducted in 2008 by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST).
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including heart attacks and stroke, are the main leading causes of deaths among Filipinos in 2009, according to the Department of Health (DOH).
CVDs include diseases of the heart and blood vessels which normally develop over time. By definition, CVD occurs when the arteries develop atherosclerosis – a process that begins in childhood and involves a gradual build-up inside them that is called plaque. This plaque contains fat, cholesterol and other substances which can grow large enough to reduce the blood’s flow through an artery.
However, most of the damage occurs when a plaque ruptures. Plaques that rupture cause blood clots to form which can block blood flow or break off. If this happens and it blocks a blood vessel that feeds either the heart or brain, it causes a heart attack or stroke.
What can Filipinos do to reduce their risk of cardiovascular diseases and stroke?
Much of the burden of cardiovascular diseases, including both heart attacks and stroke, could be eliminated by reducing the prevalence of major risk factors like high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and physical inactivity, said Charmaine A. Duante, senior science research specialist of FNRI-DOST.
What risk factors can be changed?
Smoking: Smokers have a three- to five-fold greater risk for CVD, including stroke, than nonsmokers. Thirty-one percent (31.0%) of Filipino adults smoke cigarettes. Differences exist by sex where Filipino male smokers at 53.2 percent are four times higher than female smokers at 12.5 percent. Cigarette smoking is most prevalent among young men 20-29 years of age and women aged 40-49 years old.
Alcohol Drinking: Alcohol intake of 3 or 4 drinks a day was found to be a risk factor for CVD, especially for hypertension, studies show.
About 27.0 percent of Filipinos are alcohol drinkers. Male drinkers at 57.5 percent are almost five times more than their female counterparts at 9.8 percent.
Overweight and Obesity: “Overweight” is defined as an excess amount of body weight that includes muscle, bone, fat, and water, while “obesity” specifically refers to an excess amount of body fat. Both overweight and obesity are considered independent risk factors as well as co-morbidities of high blood pressure, high blood lipid levels, and the onset of diabetes. Most often, overweight and obesity develop from eating too much and exercising too little.
A person who is either overweight or obese has at least two-fold greater risk for CVD, including stroke, than a person with normal body weight.
Two in 10 Filipinos are overweight. This is measured using the body mass index (BMI) following the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria of overweight. The BMI is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of the height in meters (BMI=wt in kg/ht in m2). A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25.0 to 30.0 is considered overweight.
Android obesity or apple-shaped obesity is prevalent particularly among Filipino women. Apple-shaped obesity is six times more common in women than in their male counterparts, affecting 7 out of 10 and 1 out 10, respectively. Android obesity is measured either using waist circumference (WC≥102 cm for men and WC≥88 cm for women) or waist-hip ratio (WHR≥ 1.0 for men and WHR ≥ 0.85 for women) criteria of the WHO.
Obesity among Filipinos increased dramatically in women using both WHR and WC criteria from 1998 to 2008.
Physical Inactivity: About 97.0 percent of Filipinos failed to participate in regular leisure time physical activity. Furthermore, results of the 7th NNS showed physical inactivity at work and travel was found in more than 75.0 percent of Filipinos. Men were more likely to participate than women in leisure and travel-related activities like walking, biking or cycling. In contrast, women were more likely to be active than men in the household activities.
What risk factors can be controlled?
High Blood Pressure: There is about three- to four-fold greater risk for CVD, including stroke, among hypertensive than among non-hypertensive adults.
About three in 10 Filipinos have high blood pressure based on a single visit measurement. Hypertensive men at 29.1 percent are significantly higher than their women counterparts at 22.2 percent. However, about 53.0 percent of women are hypertensive after menopause. In general, blood pressure increases with age. Between 2003 and 2008, hypertension increased significantly among Filipinos from 22.5 percent to 25.3 percent.
Diabetes: The risk for type 2 diabetes or the so-called late-onset diabetes may increase with age, obesity, and physical inactivity. Type 2 diabetes based on high fasting blood sugar (FBS ≥ 126 mg/dL) is more common in adults aged 40-49 years and older. In 2008 alone, more than 3 million Filipinos were estimated to have type-2 diabetes in 2008.
High Cholesterol: About two- to three-fold greater risk for CVD, including stroke, among those with high total cholesterol (≥240 mg/dL) than those with normal level of total cholesterol (< 200 mg/dL).
About 13 in 100 Filipino women and 7 in 100 Filipino men have high total cholesterol. Likewise, women have significantly higher LDL-cholesterol than men at 125.6 mg/dL and 110.0 mg/dL, respectively. In contrast, men have higher triglyceride than women at 155.0 mg/dL and 129.2 mg/dL, respectively. Men have lower HDL-cholesterol than women at 39.1 mg/dL and 41.1 mg/dL, respectively. At age 50-59 years, the level of total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride peaked for men and women. From 2003 to 2008, cholesterol abnormalities significantly increased affecting millions of Filipinos.
Pre-determined factors such as heredity, including culture, sex and increasing age are considered unmodifiable factors or cannot be controlled, the FNRI-DOST added.
Predisposing environment including continuous urbanization, cyclical poverty and low level of education among majority of the people as a consequence of poor economic situation of the country, among others, are all major contributors on the pathway to chronic lifestyle diseases among Filipinos, Duante emphasized further.
For more information on food and nutrition, contact: Dr. Mario V. Capanzana, Director, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, General Santos Avenue, Bicutan, Taguig City; Tel/Fax Num: 8372934 and 8373164; email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org; FNRI-DOST website: http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph. (FNRI-DOST S & T Media Service/PIA-Caraga)
Feature: Nutrition and cancer
By Jund Rian A. Doringo
Cancer is an assortment of diseases characterized by the abnormal cell growth that can spread and destroy other organs and body tissues.
It is a result of complex mix of factors related to heredity, diet, physical inactivity and prolonged, continuous exposure to certain chemicals and other substances.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 7.4 million deaths, or around 13 percent of all deaths, in 2004.
In the Philippines, malignant neoplasm or cancer ranked third among the leading causes of mortality, according to the Department of Health (DOH), with 48.9 percent mortality rate in 2005.
Total death attributed to cancer is 366,931 according to the Philippine Health Statistics in 2000.
The goal of nutritional management of cancer is to obtain enough proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fluids for rebuilding the body tissues and promoting a sense of well-being during treatment.
Berries like strawberry, flax seed, garlic, grape and grape juice, green tea, tomato and whole grains are foods that fight cancer, according to the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR).
Guyabano has a promising impact on cancer patients for it was found 10,000 times more effective than chemotherapy.
A low-fat or high-fat diet wouldn’t really matter as long as the patient obtains adequate amounts of calories.
It is more favorable to use mono-unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 dietary fats than saturated fats, and fish oils with megestrol acetate (or Megace).
The Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (or FNRI-DOST) developed the “Dietary Guidelines for the Prevention of Cancer”, a booklet on the role of dietary factors which affect the risk of getting certain forms of cancer.
Five simple guidelines are in the booklet, namely, (1) increase consumption of green leafy and yellow vegetables, fruits and unrefined cereals, (2) eat fat and fatty foods in moderation, (3) limit consumption of smoked, charcoal-boiled, salt-cured and salt-pickled foods, (4) avoid mouldy foods, and (5) drink alcoholic beverages in moderation and (6) stop smoking.
The FNRI-DOST is also presently conducting a study of dietary fiber which may help prevent certain diseases including colon cancer.
Death is inevitable and cancer sees no exception from its irreversible effects.
However with cautious eating, correct mindset, love and support, and a huge grasp of faith, there is a lot to hope for for cancer patients.
For more information on food and nutrition, please contact: Dr. Mario V. Capanzana, Director, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Bicutan, Taguig City; trunkline: 837 2071 local 2296 or 2287; telephone/fax no.: 837 3164, email: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org; website: http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph (FNRI-DOST S & T Media Service/PIA-Caraga)
Feature: Breastfed is BEST fed
By Marie T. Bugas
Breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to ensure child health and survival. It is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development.
Breast milk is safe, gives babies the nutrients they need and contains antibodies that help protect infants from common childhood illnesses.
Globally, it is estimated that around 35 percent of infants aged 0-6 months are exclusively breastfed today, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
The WHO emphasizes that if all babies and young children were breastfed exclusively for their first six months of life and then given nutritious complementary food with continued breastfeeding up to two years of age, the lives of an additional 1.5 million children under five years would be saved every year.
Thus, the WHO actively promotes breastfeeding as the best source of nourishment for infants and young children and it recommends to mothers worldwide to exclusively breastfeed infants for the child's first six months to achieve optimal growth, development and health.
After six months, babies should be given nutritious complementary foods and breastfed continuously up to the age of two years or beyond.
The 7th National Nutrition Survey (NNS) conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST) in 2008 reported that among infants 0-5 months old, only 36 percent were exclusively breastfed. Only 37 percent were breastfed at the same time given a complementary food, and as many as 27 percent of infants were given other milk and other foods.
The 36 percent exclusively breastfed in 2008 were significantly higher compared with those in 2003 when only 29.7 percent of 0-5-month-old infants were exclusively breastfed.
However, the duration of exclusive breastfeeding decreased from 3 to 2.3 months in 2003 and 2008, respectively.
While breastfeeding gives babies a healthy start in life, it goes a long way, as one author has said, “Breastfeeding is a gift that lasts a lifetime.” Let’s help ensure the adoption of the breastfeeding practice by encouraging all sectors to help promote, protect and support breastfeeding, he added.
For more information on food and nutrition, contact: Dr. Mario V. Capanzana, Director, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, General Santos Avenue, Bicutan, Taguig City. E-mail: email@example.com, Telefax: 837-2934 and 827-3164, or call: 8372071 local 2296 or visit our website: http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph. (FNRI-DOST S & T Media Service/PIA-Caraga)
Feature: More Filipinos are overweight, obese
By Czarina Teresita S. Martinez
The 7th National Nutrition Survey (NNS) conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST) found that 27 in every 100 Filipino adults are overweight and obese based on body mass index (BMI) classification.
The survey found that overweight and obese are highest in adults 40 to 59 years old.
The prevalence of overweight and obese is constantly increasing from 16.6 percent in 1993 to 20.2 percent in 1998, 24.0 percent in 2003 and 26.6 percent in 2008.
Moreover, the survey reported data on lifestyle behaviors that may affect the well-being of the population such as smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activities: (a) three in every 10 Filipinos adults smoke cigarettes at an average of 10 sticks per day, (b) three in every 10 Filipino adults drink alcoholic beverages, with gin and beer topping the list, and (c) only 7 in 100 Filipino adults are engaged in vigorous exercises at least three to four times a week.
Poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and smoking are behavioral risk factors that may be modified to delay if not prevent the onset of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, abnormal lung function, and dyslipidemia or abnormal lipid levels in the blood.
In fact, the Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos (NGF) identified the key components of a healthy lifestyle namely, healthy diet, regular exercise, abstinence from smoking and moderate alcohol intake.
The FNRI recommends a balanced diet comprising of a variety of food. The food guide pyramid shows the recommended daily servings of the different food groups for different age groups. The graphical illustration of the Food Pyramid can be viewed at the FNRI website.
The NGF warrants the importance of regular exercise. However, adults 40 years and over with known risk factors need to get a medical clearance before starting an exercise regimen.
A regular physical activity promotes weight control and weight maintenance, toned muscles and firm skin. It also improves blood circulation and increases efficiency of the heart and lungs. Walking, taking the stairs, and doing household chores are examples of simple forms of exercises.
On smoking, the NGF says the best rule is never to start smoking because once the habit is established, giving up smoking is not easy.
If alcoholic beverages are consumed, it should be taken in moderation. Moderate alcohol consumption means no more than one drink per day for women and no more than two drinks per day for men.
The following portions are equal to one alcohol equivalent providing 20 cubic centimeters (cc) ethanol providing about 200 calories: 1 ½ ounces (oz) distilled beverage such as gin; 12 oz or 360 cc or 1 bottle of beer; 4 oz of 120 cc or ½ glass of wine; or 1 oz or 30 cc or 1 jigger of 100 proof whiskey.
The changing lifestyle of Filipinos may increase chronic degenerative diseases but these may be prevented by good nutrition, regular exercise, not smoking and avoiding alcoholic beverages.
For more information on food and nutrition, contact: Dr. Mario V. Capanzana, Director, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, General Santos Avenue, Bicutan, Taguig City. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Telefax: 837-2934 and 827-3164, or call: 8372071 local 2296 or visit our website: http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph. (FNRI-DOST S & T Media Service/PIA-Caraga)
Tagalog news: CFO magsasagawa ng community education program para sa pangingibang bansa
Ni Danilo S. Makiling
LUNGSOD NG BUTUAN, Nob. 9 (PIA) – Pangungunahan ng Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO) ang pagsasagawa ng community education program (CEP) para sa pangingibang bansa na gaganapin sa probinsya ng Surigao del Sur sa Nobyembre 12.
Sa pahayag ni CFO Secretary Imelda Nicolas, layunin ng aktibidad na bigyan ng kaukulang kaalaman ang mga mangingibang bansa hinggil sa kanilang pagtratrabaho at sa pagtira doon, pati na ang pagbuo ng isang komunidad na makikilahok sa mga kaunlaran ng pangingibang bansa.
“Ito ay naglalayong palakasin ang kaalaman ng publiko hinggil sa mga isyu ng pangingibang bansa at mga patakaran ng pamahalaan at programa laban sa illegal recruitment at human trafficking, at iba pa,” ani Nicolas.
Sasailalim din sa isang pakikipanayam ang mga representante ng CFO sa dxBN-Radyo ng Bayan Butuan City ngayong Nobyembre 11. (NCLM/PIA-Caraga)
Tagalog news: Mga ahensya ng pamahalaan magsasagawa ng Export Information seminar sa lungsod ng Butuan
Ni Danilo S. Makiling
LUNGSOD NG BUTUAN, Nob 9 (PIA) -- Pangungunahan ng Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Caraga sa pakikipag-ugnayan ng Bureau of Export Trade Promotion (BETP) at Philippine Trade and Training Center (PTTC) ang dalawang araw na Export Information Seminar ngayong Nobyembre 14 hanggang 15, na gaganapin sa Prince Hotel, ng lungsod.
Ayon kay DTI-Caraga Director Brielgo Pagaran ang dalawang araw na aktibidad ay parte ng patuloy na aktibidad na isinasagawa ng BETP’s Regional Interactive Platform for Philippine Exporters na naglalayong paunlarin ang mga bagong exporters at palakihin ang suplay ng bansa base narin sa globally-competitive na produkto at serbisyo at palakasin din ang exports ng Pilipinas.
Pangungunahan ni BETP Assistant Director Jason Lao ang technical experts galing sa BETP AT PTTC sa pagtalakay at pagpresenta sa mga producers ng mga pagkain at mga regalo/mga dikurasyon/mga kagamitan sa bahay sa rehiyon hinggil sa mga pagbabago sa pagpasok sa dayuhang merkado, market trends, product development at design trends, at iba pa.
“Ang mga kaalamang ito ay isang malaking tulong sa mga producers sa Caraga sa pagkamit ng kaalaman at kasanayan sa pagproproduce ng dekalidad at makabagaong produkto na maaaring i-export sa ibang bansa,” ani Pagaran.
Ina-anyayahan din ni Pagaran ang media sa Caraga na makilahok sa aktibidad.
Para sa karagdagang impormasyon hinggil sa aktibidad maaaring tumawag sa numerong (085) 342-5615. (NCLM/PIA-Caraga)
Cebuano news: Pangulong Aquino gipangulohan ang 'Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan' didto sa Malacañang
Ni Susil D. Ragas
SURIGAO CITY, Nob. 9 (PIA) -- Gihatag ni Pangulong Benigno Aquino III ang 2012 National Living Treasures Award (Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan) ngadto sa duh aka mga artists atol sa seremonya didto sa Palasyo sa Malacañang kagahapon.
Gihatag sa Pangulo ang award ngadto kang inabel weaver Magdalena Gamayo ug gourd casque maker Teofilo Garcianga parehong taga northern provinces. Si Gamayo tubong Ilocos Norte samtang si Garcia gikan sa Abra.
Ang Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan gitugyan sa Pangulo ug gidumala sa National Commission for Culture and Arts (NCAA) pinaagi sa Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan Committee.
Natawo niadtong Agosto13, 1924 didto sa Lumbaan Pinili, Ilocos Norte, si Gamayo nakakat-on paghabi sa tradisyunal nga Ilokano blanket gitawag og inabel sa bata pa siya.
Ang iyang trabaho nagpakita og masterful workmanship, paggamit og mga talagsaon nga technique. Siya gipasidunggan tungoid sa iyang pagpasiugda sa traditional art paghimo og weaving textile.
Samtang si Garcia nga setentay uno anyos na usa ka tighimo og gourd casque o tabungaw (headgear) o purong. Siya usa ka kumpletong tig-gama nga maoy mihimo sa iyang produksyon gikan sa pagtanom sa raw materials hangtod ngadto sa pagkahuman sa tabungaw. Tanan niyang mga trabaho talagsaon gyud nga nagpakita sa iyang kahanas sa nagkalain-laing mga techniques ug materialis.
Ang mga nakadawat sa maong award gipili base sa ilang mga nahimo ngadto sa pagmugna, paglambo ug suporta sa traditional arts dinhi sa Pilipinas.
Ang Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan Award maoy pinakataas nga award nga gitugyan ngadto sa mga traditional artists sa gobyerno sa Pilipinas. Aron makadawat sa maong award, kinahanglan tagbawon sa mga kandidato ang lima ka kriteria, nga mao ang technical ug creativity skills, artistic quality, community tradition, artistic tradition ug character ug integrity.
Niadtong Abril 1992, ang Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan gimugna pinaagi sa Republic Act No. 7355. Ang NCAA, pinaagi sa Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan Committee, ug usa ka Ad hoc Panel of Experts, maoy mopahigayon og pagpangita alang sa pinaka finest traditional artists sa nasod, ug maoy mopasiugda og programa aron maseguro nga mapalakbit ang ilang kahanas ngadto sa uban.
Sa gilantaw ubos sa RA 7355, ang maong “Manlilikha ng Bayan” usa ka yanong Filipino nga maoy trabaho ang bisan unsa nga traditional art nga Filipinhon, kinsang talagsaon nga kahanas nakaabot sa pinakataas nga ang-ang sa technical ug artistic excellence.
Lakip sa mga mitambong atol sa maong awarding mao sila Kanhi First Lady ug 2nd District Ilocos Norte Representative Imelda Marcos uban si Governor Imee Marcos sa Ilocos Norte; Gov. Kit Bersamin sa Abra ug Mayor Bonifacio Clemente sa probinsya sa Paoy; NCAA chairman Felipe M. de leon ug Dr. Elena Rivera Mirano, chairperson sa Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan committee. (RER/SDR/PIA- Surigao del Norte)